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Entorhinal cortex coronal

3.03.2.1 The Postrhinal Cortex

Entorhinal subregions showing significant functional connectivity (one-sample t-test) or differential connectivity (paired t-test) with bilateral PRC or PHC seeds (Z > 2.3, pcluster <0.05, NExp. 1 = 15, NExp. 2 = 14). Single-subject beta maps were normalized on the group-specific T1-template and masked with a manually defined EC ROI. The EC covered 26 coronal slices on the template (y = 154: most anterior slice, y = 129: most posterior slice), with coronal slices being oriented orthogonal to the hippocampal long-axis. See also Figure 1 and Figure 1—figure supplement 1.The following sentences in the Introduction clearly illustrate the problem: “In actuality, anatomical studies in nonhuman primates have not reported connectivity differences between MEC and LEC. Instead, these studies suggest an anterior-posterior gradient of EC connectivity, with the PRC tending to be interconnected with the anterior third of the EC, whereas the PHC tends to be interconnected with approximately the posterior two-thirds of the EC (Suzuki and Amaral, 1994).” The former is correct if one defines LEC and MEC as two areas that are physically located lateral and medial, but very incorrect if one looks at the data, which are partially correctly summarized in the second sentence. In the Suzuki and Amaral paper the preferred connections of PHC to EC are in the posterolateral domain and those form PRC are in the anteromedial domain, strikingly similar to what the current data show in the human.Previous human resting-state fMRI studies at 3 Tesla (Kahn et al., 2008; Libby et al., 2012) have reported reliable differences in connectivity between the PRC and PHC with the hippocampus along the longitudinal hippocampal axis, most prominently with the subiculum (Libby et al., 2012). However, a dissociation of PRC vs PHC connectivity along the proximo-distal axis of the subiculum, as demonstrated between PRC and POR in rodents (Naber et al., 1999, 2001; Agster and Burwell, 2013), has not been reported so far in humans. THE HUMAN ENTORHINAL CORTEX: Anatomic organization and its alteration in Alzheimer's disease and temporal lobe epilepsy. Series of Reports, No 50, Department of Neurology, University of Kuopio In rats and mice the entorhinal cortex can be divided into two subregions that have distinct connections to other parts of the temporal lobe. The ‘medial entorhinal cortex’ is the subregion nearest the centre of the brain, and it predominantly connects to parahippocampal cortex, which is involved in processing visual scenes. The other subregion, the ‘lateral entorhinal cortex’, is to the left or right of the center and has particularly strong connections to the perirhinal cortex, which is involved in the memory of objects. The two subregions are also connected to different parts of the hippocampus.

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There are several other instances where the chosen formulation obscures a clear line of thinking. The authors clearly think along similar lines when they write in the first paragraph of the Discussion: “These results reveal the functional topography of the human EC as a gateway between neocortex and hippocampus and show remarkable accordance with principles known from anatomical studies of rodents (lateral vs medial; for reviews see (Witter et al., 2000b; van Strien et al., 2009) and studies of non-human primates (anterior vs posterior; see e.g. Suzuki and Amaral, 1994; Witter and Amaral, 1991).” Unfortunately in referring to the data of, for example Reagh and Yassa, matters become complicated again (third paragraph of the Discussion), since there they copy the nomenclature LEC and MEC from the authors which unfortunately is based on using LEC for a lateral part of EC and MEC for a medial part of EC. In the next sentence the authors than claim that their data demonstrate “that lateral and medial EC exhibit differential functional connectivity with PRC and PHC.” Here they refrain from using either LEC/MEC or their own adopted AL-EC and PM-EC. Entorhinal cortex synonyms, Entorhinal cortex pronunciation, Entorhinal cortex translation, English dictionary definition of Entorhinal cortex. n. pl. cor·ti·ces or cor·tex·es 1. Anatomy a. The outer layer.. The entorhinal cortex forms the interface between the neocortex and hippocampus and is believed (C) Microprism implant placement for the mPFC and MEC. Coronal and sagittal slices adapted from ref

First, we calculated single-seed group connectivity maps using voxelwise one-sample t-tests to characterize the intrinsic connectivity profiles of PHC and PRC with EC (Figure 1 and Figure 1—figure supplement 1A). Additionally, paired t-tests were performed to determine significant differences in PRC vs PHC connectivity (Figure 2A). Resulting t-maps were masked with the EC ROI and significant clusters determined by cluster-extent based thresholding (Z > 2.3; pcluster < 0.05). In addition, we visualized the differential topographic pattern of PRC vs PHC connectivity along the x-y-z direction in three-dimensional plot of connectivity preference for each voxel (see Figure 2B). These analyses indicated relatively stronger connectivity of the PRC with the anterior-ventral-lateral EC and stronger connectivity of the PHC with the posterior-dorsal-medial EC.Human subjects: The study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Magdeburg. All subjects gave written informed consent, and consent to publish prior to participation and received monetary compensation for participation. The cerebral cortex is the outer covering of the cerebrum, the layer of the brain often referred to as The cortex makes up about two-thirds of the brain's total mass and lies over and around most of the..

Entorhinal Cortex Coronal - Bing image

The medial entorhinal cortex borders the postrhinal cortex ventrally and is easily distinguished by Figure 4. Location and photomicrograph of the postrhinal cortex (POR). (a) Drawing of a coronal.. cortex [ˈkɔ:teks]Существительное. cortex / cortexes This sentence in the subsection “PRC and PHC show significantly different connectivity patterns along the transverse and longitudinal axis of the EC” further illustrates the confusion: “Anatomical studies in rodents have demonstrated a lateral-medial dissociation of EC connectivity with PRC vs. PHC, while data in nonhuman primates suggest an anteriorposterior dissociation”. One can argue that the connectivity patterns are actually quite similar but slightly rotated in space.

Frontiers Architecture of the Entorhinal Cortex A Review of

  1. The entorhinal cortex is commonly perceived as a major input and output structure of the hippocampal formation, entertaining the role of the nodal point of cortico-hippocampal circuits
  2. The entorhinal cortex is one of the brain's most important memory centers. The entorhinal cortex is situated in the medial temporal lobe, underneath the cerebral cortex and close to the hippocampus
  3. Yung Cortex is an American producer and rapper based in Los Angeles. He was a member of MoneyPosse
  4. Concurrent with our investigation, Navarro Schröder and colleagues (Navarro Schröder et al., 2015) also studied the functional organization of the human EC. Whereas the present study focused on MTL connectivity, their study focused on functional connectivity of the EC with large-scale cortical networks. Consistent with our study, they also differentiated between anterior-lateral and posterior-medial EC subregions based on differential global network connectivity in resting state and task fMRI data (Navarro Schröder et al., 2015). They found that the al-EC exhibited stronger connectivity with regions in an anterior-temporal cortical system including medial-prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas the pm-EC exhibited stronger connectivity with regions in a posterior-medial system including regions in occipital and posterior-parietal cortex. Analyses of task fMRI data revealed that al-EC activity was enhanced during processing of object information and pm-EC activity was enhanced during processing of scenes. Their findings are consistent with the idea that al- and pm-EC may be related to two cortico-hippocampal networks that support distinct types of memory (Ranganath and Ritchey, 2012; Ritchey et al., in press).
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The entorhinal cortex is a portion (near the ear) of the temporal lobe of the human cortex that is very interesting, so it has earned its own name. It is very close to the hippocampus on each side.. In order to enable precise cross-participant alignment for hippocampal and parahippocampal regions, we used Region of Interest-Advanced Normalization Tools (ROI-ANTS [Klein et al., 2009; Yassa and Stark, 2009; Avants et al., 2011]).Depth electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in TLE patients have shown that epileptic discharges are recorded from the hippocampus and parahippocampal areas. Two different types of interaction between the hippocampus and EC have been identified. The first type is characterized by coupling between the EC and hippocampus, in which the latter is the ‘leading’ (i.e., seizure-initiating) structure. In this pattern of epileptic activity, seizures are initiated by low-frequency (<2 Hz) spikes – generated in the hippocampus, not in the EC – that are subsequently followed by fast activity. The second type of interaction consists of tonic discharges without preictal spiking, which appears simultaneously in the hippocampus and EC; in this type of activity, the EC more frequently takes the lead. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that preictal (defined as interictal in these studies) spiking activity can precede the ictal discharge. However, in these models, low-frequency stimulation that induces spiking activity was found to control, rather than to trigger, tonic (i.e., ictal) discharges. We will consider here these findings by addressing three main issues: (i) the contribution and the interaction of different limbic neuronal networks to epileptiform synchronization, (ii) the relationship between interictal and ictal activities, and (iii) the roles of subiculum and PC in controlling the spread of epileptiform discharges.

Studies conducted in multiple species indicate extensive subcortical connectivity for the entorhinal cortex. Although differences exist with respect to the detail of the information, it is safe to conclude that the entorhinal cortex has connections with the basal forebrain, claustrum, amygdala, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem (for review see [70]). The entorhinal cortex sends projections to the nucleus accumbens [82–85] and receives inputs from the ventral tegmental area [86]. The entire entorhinal cortex has strong reciprocal connections with the claustrum [32, 87–90]. Additional connections exist with basal forebrain structures, in particular the medial septal nucleus, the nucleus of the diagonal band, and the substantia innominata [32, 86, 91–93]. It is most likely that entorhinal projections to basal forebrain structures arise in layers II and V.Thank you for sending your work entitled “Functional subdivisions of the human entorhinal cortex” for consideration at eLife. Your article has been favorably evaluated by Eve Marder (Senior editor) and three reviewers, one of whom is a member of our Board of Reviewing Editors. The entorhinal cortex (EC) is the primary site of interactions between the neocortex and hippocampus. Studies in rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that EC can be divided into subregions that..

Functional subregions of the human entorhinal cortex eLif

Manual tracing of the entorhinal cortex was performed on images realigned along the anterior commissure-posterior commissure line on coronal, sagittal, and axial planes on BRAINS2 software.. The postrhinal cortex is located near the caudal pole of the rat brain, caudal to the perirhinal cortex, dorsal to the rhinal sulcus and to the medial entorhinal area (Figure 1(c)). Usually the postrhinal cortex arises at the caudal limit of the angular bundle when subicular cells are no longer present in coronal sections (Figure 4(a)). At this level, postrhinal cortex is characterized by the presence of ectopic layer II cells at the perirhinal–postrhinal border near the ventral border with the medial entorhinal cortex (Figure 4(b), arrow). Moving caudally, the postrhinal cortex rises dorsally above the caudal extension of the rhinal fissure and wraps obliquely around the caudal pole of the brain. Visual association cortex, which forms the dorsal border of postrhinal cortex, has a more differentiated laminar pattern and a broader layer IV. The precise location of the dorsal border is difficult to distinguish cytoarchitectonically. A convenient landmark, however, is provided by the parasubiculum. The dorsal border of the postrhinal cortex on the lateral surface tends to be at the same dorsoventral level as the parasubiculum on the medial surface. The medial entorhinal cortex borders the postrhinal cortex ventrally and is easily distinguished by the large layer II cells and distinct laminar look of the cortex.

Lamina Dissecans (Layer IV)Occasionally, pyramidal-shaped neurons are located in the lamina dissecans, at the borders to layers III and V. These neurons have the morphological and physiological properties of either layer III or layer V pyramidal neurons, respectively (own unpublished data).Furthermore, bipolar cells, whose dendrites grow horizontally instead of vertically to the pial surface, with axonal collaterals that can travel towards superficial layer III and deep layers, have been found in the lamina dissecans (unpublished data). It has been shown that bipolar cells might contain VIP, CCK, and CRF [117].The different sets of inputs are mapped onto the hippocampus with a striking topographical organization as well, such that the zone closest to the rhinal fissure preferentially connects with the dorsal (non-primate) or posterior (primate) part of the hippocampus whereas portions of the entorhinal cortex positioned more distant from the rhinal fissure connect more to ventral (non-primate) or anterior (primate) part of the hippocampus (Figure 1C and D; Witter et al., 2000b).

The terms “proximal” and “distal” distinguish locations within the transverse plane of the subiculum. “Proximal” refers to tissue closer to the center of the hippocampus, assuming that the dentate gyrus lies at the core of the structure and that the structure has been unrolled. “Distal” refers to tissue further from the core. Thus, distal CA1 reaches the border with the proximal subiculum, while the distal subiculum borders the presubiculum (Fig. 1). This proximal:distal distinction is important. For example, the dense CA1 inputs to the subiculum are topographically organized such that proximal CA1 projects to distal subiculum, while distal CA1 projects to proximal subiculum (Witter, 2006). Distinguishing the anterior–posterior axis of the primate subiculum is also of considerable anatomical and functional importance (Aggleton, 2012; Fanselow and Dong, 2010; Poppenk et al., 2013). The corresponding axis in the rodent subiculum runs from the ventral (or temporal) subiculum to the dorsal (or septal) subiculum, the latter corresponding to the primate posterior hippocampus.Although we will address the layered organization of the entorhinal cortex in more detail below, it is relevant to point out that entorhinal-cortical projections largely arise from deep layers, primarily from layer V pyramidal neurons. Possible exceptions are the entorhinal-infralimbic and entorhinal-olfactory projections, which appear to arise in layers II and III as well [22, 81]. Regarding entorhinal afferents, it is clear that most show a distribution largely confined to the superficial layers I–III with the exception of inputs from infralimbic, and prelimbic areas together with cingular and retrosplenial inputs that show a striking preference for deep layers of the entorhinal cortex [72].In this interesting and well-written study, the authors used 7 Tesla ultra-high field functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify functional subdivisions of the human EC through the analysis of preferred connectivity with parahippocampal and perirhinal cortices. Aside from a solidly supported hypothesis on how connectional patterns might allow the definition of functionally different domains in the human entorhinal cortex, the authors aimed to test other connectivity patterns in humans as well, including the perirhinal and parahippocampal-subicular projections. This study, as well as its counterpart study by Schröder et al., should be welcomed and heralded as an important step forward.

Entorhinal cortex Radiology Reference Article Radiopaedia

  1. ergic inputs from the septal complex and brainstem and inputs from the thalamus, amygdala, and claustrum exhibit an overall diffuse ter
  2. Perirhinal and Postrhinal Cortices of the Rat: Interconnectivity and Connections With the Entorhinal ABSTRACT The cortical regions dorsally adjacent to the posterior rhinal sulcus in the rat can be..
  3. From the perspective of neuroanatomy — the tissues and structures of the nervous system — the entorhinal cortex also holds some major responsibility. It is thought that this cortex retains a neural blueprint of spatial movements. The area has a number of "path cells," which help an individual navigate clockwise or counterclockwise paths of movement.
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Entorhinal cortex - Scholarpedi

The Cortex Fight is the final and fifth boss encounter of the Memory Map. The Cortex Arena will appear on the Memory Map Randomly(possibly only after you have killed the other 4 bosses) 2Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Neurosciences, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, 1007MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands

What Is The Entorhinal Cortex

Amlogic S912. CPU. Четыре ядра Cortex-A73 с тактовой частотой 2,21 ГГц Два ядра Cortex-A53 с частотой 1,8 ГГц The deep layers, especially layer V, receive one of the three main outputs of the hippocampus and, in turn, reciprocate connections from other cortical areas that project to superficial EC.Figure 48.2. The anatomy of the hippocampal memory system in monkeys and rats. The hippocampal memory system includes the hippocampus (CA fields, dentate gyrus, and subiculum) and the parahippocampal region, which includes the entorhinal cortex, the perirhinal cortex, and the parahippocampal cortex. The hippocampal memory system also includes midline diencephalic nuclei. Multiple association areas in the cerebral cortex send outputs that converge on cortical areas in the parahippocampal region, which in turn sends its outputs to the hippocampus. The output path involves return projections from the hippocampus to the surrounding parahippocampal region, which in turn projects back to the same cortical association areas. The bottom image shows detailed entorhinal projections on a transverse section of the hippocampus (location of section indicated by dashed lines on the top image).

What Does the Anatomical Organization of the Entorhinal Cortex Tell

Postrhinal Cortex - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Group-level functional connectivity profiles of each seed region for Experiment 1 and 2 are shown in Figure 1 and Figure 1—figure supplement 1, respectively (voxelwise one-sample t-tests, Z > 2.3, pcluster < 0.05). While the PRC showed significant connectivity with bilateral EC clusters covering approximately the anterior two-thirds of the EC, significant functional connectivity of the PHC was found with bilateral EC clusters comprising about the posterior two-thirds of the EC (see also peak coordinates of significant clusters in Table 1). Additionally, PRC-connectivity clusters were limited to progressively more lateral regions of the EC when moving posteriorly while PHC-connectivity clusters were limited to progressively more medial regions of the EC when moving anteriorly. Overlapping connectivity with both seeds was strongest in the transition zone between anterior-posterior and lateral-medial EC (see bright regions in Figure 1 and Figure 1—figure supplement 1).In the early 1950s, an American named Henry Molaison underwent an experimental type of brain surgery to treat his severe epilepsy. The surgeon removed a region of the brain known as the temporal lobe from both sides of his brain. After the surgery, Molaison's epilepsy was greatly improved, but he was also left with a profound amnesia, unable to form new memories of recent events.EC neurons process general information such as directional activity in the environment, which contrasts to that of the hippocampal neurons, which usually encode information about specific places. This suggests that EC encodes general properties about current contexts that are then used by hippocampus to create unique representations from combinations of these properties.However, the reviewers were consensual in concern that this study fell into a well-known trap of comparative anatomical studies in that chosen nomenclatures are taken to have implications that have never been intended, neither implicitly nor explicitly. This leads to rather confounding representations of /comparisons with known data on the connectional organization of the parahippocampal region in different species. In addition, the study is hampered by addressing multiple questions, all relevant and worthy of analysis, which all and all are done very nicely by the authors, but the diversity adds to the confusion instead of counter-balancing this.

Architecture of the Entorhinal Cortex A Review of Entorhinal - NCB

Video: What is the Entorhinal Cortex? (with pictures

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The entorhinal cortex (Brodmann area 28) is located in the mesial temporal lobe and acts as the interface between the hippocampus and the neocortex. It has been considered part of the.. The entorhinal cortex is connected with thalamic and hypothalamic structures. Major thalamic input arises in midline nuclei, particularly the reuniens, paratenial, and periventricular nuclei [31, 86, 98–100]. Additional but weaker inputs have been described from the anteromedial thalamic nucleus [101], and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus [102]. In the rat, it has been shown that the entorhinal cortex reciprocates the reuniens input [103]. In the monkey, additional projections have been reported to end in the magnocellular portion of dorsal medial nucleus, the medial pulvinar, and the dorsolateral nucleus [98, 104]. The entorhinal cortex also receives input from midbrain structures such as the dorsal raphe nucleus, the median raphe, and locus coeruleus [86, 105, 106]. Details about entorhinal innervations from these important modulatory regions of the brain are not available yet. entorhinal cortex. şükela: tümü | bugün. belleğe katkıları üzerinde yeni açıklamalar bulabilir. bunların yanında entorhinal korteksin alzheimer ve bazı bilişsel hastalıkların erken devrelerinde.. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.At the most anterior level of the EC (when the amygdala is visible) EC is fully covered by al-EC. Moving posteriorly, the hippocampal head (HH) starts. Around 3–4 slices (∼2 mm) after the first appearance of the HH, pm-EC appears at the very medial/dorsal tip of the EC, touching the amygdala. The border between pm-EC and al-EC approximately corresponds to the uncal notch, such that pm-EC covers the gyrus ambiens. Moving more posteriorly the border between pm-EC and al-EC moves progressively down (more lateral/ventral) until al-EC and pm-EC are around equal size at the level of two thirds of HH. At this level the amygdala has fully disappeared. Going further posteriorly the border between pm-EC and al-EC moves progressively more lateral/ventral, such that pm-EC also covers parts of the ventral/lateral EC half. At the level where the uncus separates from the HC (and only the fimbria is attached to both), the EC is almost fully covered by pm-EC. We delineated the EC until the collateral sulcus (or rhinal fissure) disappeared, which was one slice (0.6 mm) after disappearance of the uncus. Approximately the four most posterior EC slices (∼2.4 mm) were fully covered by pm-EC.

Entorhinal Cortex Research Papers - Academia

Entorhinal definition is - of, relating to, or being the part of the cerebral cortex in the medial temporal lobe that serves as the main cortical input to the hippocampus In 2005, it was discovered that entorhinal cortex contains a neural map of the spatial environment in rats. In 2014, John O’Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, partly because of this discovery.Download as PDFSet alertAbout this pageMemory SystemsR.D. Burwell, K.L. Agster, in Learning and Memory: A Comprehensive Reference, 2008Al-EC and pm-EC masks as well as the whole brain T1-template are available online in original (Source code 1; resolution: 0.6 mm3 isotropic) and MNI space (Source code 2; resolution: 2 mm3 isotropic). Furthermore, location of al-EC and pm-EC in relation to PRC, PHC and proximal vs distal subiculum is visualized in Video 1.Consistent with our previous analyses for the EC, we divided the subiculum into four equal portions along the longitudinal (anterior vs posterior) and transverse (lateral [‘proximal’] vs medial [‘distal’]) axis. We then extracted mean parameter estimates of functional connectivity with anterior-lateral and posterior-medial EC for each subicular section and each subject and submitted them to a factorial ANOVA to test for connectivity differences as a function of EC subregion (al-EC vs pm-EC) and anterior vs posterior and proximal vs distal subiculum subregions. Similar to the division of the EC, we performed the proximal-distal cut individually for each coronal subiculum slice.

In addition, we also changed the title to: “Functional subregions of the human entorhinal cortex”. Примите участие в Битве Умов Subsequently, PRC and PHC masks were coregistered and resliced to the individual mean EPI images and manually adjusted to achieve a precise overlay on the functional data. To exclude voxels susceptible to signal dropout, for each ROI, voxels with mean intensity (across timepoints) < 2 SD from the mean intensity (across voxels) in an ROI were removed from the ROI (Libby et al., 2012). Thresholding led to the rejection of no more than 5% of voxels in any ROI. Additionally, areas of PRC were occasionally subject to distortion artifact, and these voxels were manually deleted from ROIs. These adjusted and thresholded ROIs were used as seed regions for the functional connectivity analyses.Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Scopus, Crossref, PubMed Central.Severe alteration of the entorhinal cortex is associated with several disorders of the human brain, importantly Alzheimer’s disease, temporal lobe epilepsy and schizophrenia. In case of Alzheimer's disease, the initial pathological changes reportedly occur in layer II of the entorhinal cortex (Braak and Braak, 1985), and volume reduction of the entorhinal cortex is now considered a relevant and reliable measure to identify individuals at risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Entorhinal atrophy is associated with mild memory loss as seen in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and it precedes hippocampal volume reduction seen in Alzheimer patients (deToledo-Morrell et al., 2004). Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with marked degeneration in layer III (Du et al., 1993), and in case of schizophrenia an overall miss-wiring of the entorhinal cortex or volume reductions have been proposed as a possible contributing factor (Arnold, 2000; Baiano et al., 2008).

Entorhinal Cortex: Antemortem Cortical Thickness and

Cerebral cortex cytoarchitecture and layers Kenhu

Frontiers | Htr2a Gene and 5-HT2A Receptor Expression in

Laminar and Dorsoventral Molecular Organization of the Medial

Tau pathology first appears in the transentorhinal and anterolateral entorhinal cortex (alEC) in the aging brain. The transition to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is hypothesized to involve amyloid-β (Aβ) facilitated tau spread through neural connections. We contrasted functional connectivity (FC) of alEC and posteromedial EC (pmEC), subregions of EC that differ in functional specialization and cortical connectivity, with the hypothesis that alEC-connected cortex would show greater tau deposition than pmEC-connected cortex. We used resting state fMRI to measure FC, and PET to measure tau and Aβ in cognitively normal older adults. Tau preferentially deposited in alEC-connected cortex compared to pmEC-connected or non-connected cortex, and stronger connectivity was associated with increased tau deposition. FC-tau relationships were present regardless of Aβ, although strengthened with Aβ. These results provide an explanation for the anatomic specificity of neocortical tau deposition in the aging brain and reveal relationships between normal aging and the evolution of AD.The same group of researchers have found speed cells in the medial entorhinal cortex of rats. The speed of movement is translated from proprioceptive information and is represented as firing rates in these cells. The cells are known to fire in correlation to future speed of the rodent.

Entorhinal cortex - Big Chemical Encyclopedi

(Entorhinal cortex approximately maps to areas 28 and 34, at lower left.) Medial surface of right Neurons in the lateral entorhinal cortex exhibit little spatial selectivity,[4] whereas neurons of the.. Results from the present study may be pertinent to understanding memory impairment in clinical conditions that compromise the structural integrity of the medial temporal lobes, including neurodegenerative diseases such as AD and frontotemporal lobar degeneration, temporal lobe epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, developmental amnesia and ischemia. In AD, for instance, tau pathology emerges in lateral regions of the EC early in the course of the disease (Braak and Braak, 1991; Braak and Del Tredici, 2004). Analyses of functional connectivity can potentially reveal how EC degeneration in the early stages of AD could impact the functional organization of distributed cortical networks (Khan et al., 2014; also see; La Joie et al., 2014) and also shed light on the transsynaptic progression of pathology in AD. Spiroergometry solutions from CORTEX. DISINFECTION & COVID-19. The CORTEX CANOPY-Option for METALYZER®3B makes it possible to measure the basal metabolic rate and the resting..

Cholinergic Deafferentation of the Entorhinal Cortex in Rats Manualz

  1. This video cannot be played in place because your browser does support HTML5 video. You may still download the video for offline viewing.
  2. We performed seed-to-voxel correlational analyses on the native (preprocessed, unnormalized) residual fMRI data using the conn-toolbox (Whitfield-Gabrieli and Nieto-Castanon, 2012). First, functional connectivity patterns of PRC vs PHC seeds with the EC were analyzed. For each functional connectivity analysis, seed regions' average time series were generated as regressors of interest. As covariates of no interest, WM and CSF time series and subjects' realignment parameters (including spike regressors) were included to account for physiological noise and movements, respectively. Functional data were band-pass filtered for frequencies of 0.01–0.1 Hz. Bivariate correlations were computed, resulting in beta maps containing Fisher-transformed correlation coefficients. To perform group analyses, beta maps were registered to the group-specific T1 template (see below) and Z-standardized.
  3. How is Entorhinal Cortex abbreviated? EC stands for Entorhinal Cortex. EC is defined as Entorhinal Cortex very frequently

Entorhinal cortex - Wikiwan

The reviewers were consensual in concern that this study fell into a well-known trap of comparative anatomical studies in that chosen nomenclatures are taken to have implications that have never been intended, neither implicitly nor explicitly. This leads to rather confounding representations of /comparisons with known data on the connectional organization of the parahippocampal region in different species. In addition, the study is hampered by addressing multiple questions, all relevant and worthy of analysis, which all and all are done very nicely by the authors, but the diversity adds to the confusion instead of counter-balancing this.Further research into the entorhinal cortex suggests that the region may also play a role in the development of depression and schizophrenia. One study demonstrated that the right side of the cortex was significantly smaller in elderly patients with clinical depression. Also, brain atrophy associated with schizophrenia might begin in this region.

Repeated-measures ANOVAs with PRC and PHC connectivity estimates revealed significant two-way interactions of seed region × anterior-posterior EC section (Exp. 1: F(1,14) = 56.0, p < 0.001; Exp. 2: F(1,13) = 95.9, p < 0.001) and seed region × lateral-medial EC section (Exp. 1: F(1,14) = 11.3, p = 0.005; Exp. 2: F(1,13) = 32.8, p < 0.001).Figure 1. Coronal sections of the rat (upper) and rhesus monkey (lower) subiculum. Both sections are stained with NeuN so that only neurons are visible. The rat section shows the dorsal subiculum. The monkey coronal section is level with the most caudal part of the uncus. Note the change in lamination going from the primate subiculum to the presubiculum. Abbreviations: Rspl, retrosplenial cortex; Presub, presubiculum. This article covers the cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex. Learn all about the Brodmann areas, its cells, columns, layers, and organization at Kenhub “These results reveal the functional topography of the human EC as a gateway between neocortex and hippocampus and show remarkable accordance with principles known from anatomical studies of rodents (rostrolateral vs caudomedial; for reviews see (Witter et al., 2000b; van Strien et al., 2009) and studies of nonhuman primates (anterolateral vs posteromedial; see e.g. Suzuki and Amaral, 1994; Witter and Amaral, 1991).”

Hippocampus | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia

Category:Entorhinal cortex - Wikimedia Common

  1. Certain cortical regions have somewhat simpler functions, termed the primary cortices. The paleocortex includes the piriform lobe, specialized for olfaction, and the entorhinal cortex
  2. Coronal section of the caudal entorhinal cortex (Swanson, 1999) (bregma, ⫺7.6) that, when damaged, shows a strong positive correlation (r ⫽ 0.86) with the extent of impairment in working..
  3. The entorhinal cortex (EC) is an area of the brain located in the medial temporal lobe and functioning as a hub in a widespread network for memory and navigation
  4. ent inputs arise from the lateral, basal, and accessory basal nuclei [97]. Amygdala input ter
  5. Concept: Entorhinal cortex. 413. Read Later. The medial temporal structures, including the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex, are critical for the ability to transform daily experience into..
  6. The discovery of these networks in the temporal lobe in humans will help to bridge the gap between studies of memory in rodents and in humans. Given that the lateral entorhinal cortex is one of the first regions to be affected in Alzheimer's disease, identifying the specific properties and roles of these networks could also provide insights into disease mechanisms.
  7. ant cell type. Six layers are commonly distinguished, of which layers I and IV are relatively free of neurons. The principal neurons of the entorhinal cortex, i.e., the neurons that are among the main recipients of inco

Uncovering Diverse Navigational Codes in Entorhinal Cortex - YouTub

  1. In 2012, neuroscientists at UCLA conducted an experiment using a virtual taxi video game connected to seven epilepsy patients with electrodes already implanted in their brains, allowing the researchers to monitor neuronal activity whenever memories were being formed.
  2. The entorhinal cortex is part of the medial temporal lobe or hippocampal memory system and constitutes the major gateway between the hippocampal formation and the neocortex. The entorhinal cortex has initially attracted attention because of its strong reciprocal connections with the hippocampal formation and its involvement in certain brain disorders.
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  4. g correction and smoothing with a 1.5 mm full-width half-maximum Gaussian kernel (FWHM < 2 × voxel size) to keep high anatomical specificity. Outliers in average intensity and/or scan-to-scan motion were identified using the ARTRepair toolbox for SPM (Percent threshold in global intensity: 1.3, movement threshold: 0.3 mm/TR) and included as spike regressors.
  5. We used the multivariate classification approach to predict al-EC and pm-EC subregions across all subjects. Based on the relative connectivity preference of an EC voxel across subjects the classifier predicts PRC or PHC connectivity preference for the left out subject. Thereby we can compute consistency maps that show the consistency of predictions for each EC voxel across all subjects. This revealed regions of high and low consistency. Based on the predictions of the classifier we created a PRC-connectivity preference (‘al-EC’) and a PHC-connectivity preference EC (‘pm-EC’) mask. To provide these masks in a more usable manner (not on a partial volume T1-template), we created a whole brain high-resolution T1-template based on the MPRAGEs of all participants (N = 29; voxel size: 0.6 mm3 isotropic, AC-PC aligned). We then aligned the EC masks on the whole-brain template (linear registration) and manually corrected outer borders, if these did not fit perfectly.

The entorhinal cortex is an area of the brain located in the medial temporal lobe and functions as a hub in a For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Entorhinal cortex Anatomical studies in rodents have demonstrated that LEC and MEC exhibit different patterns of connectivity along the proximo-distal (transverse) axis of the subiculum and CA1 (e.g., Witter et al., 2000a). Similarly, anterolateral vs posteromedial EC regions in nonhuman primates have been shown to exhibit differential connectivity with proximal vs distal subiculum and CA1 (Witter and Amaral, 1991). These findings motivated us to test whether functional connectivity between our functional EC subregions and the hippocampus is topographically organized. Within the hippocampus, we focused on the subiculum, based on previous findings demonstrating that the topographic organization of cortico-hippocampal functional connectivity is most prominent in the subiculum (Libby et al., 2012). Blood Supply to the Cerebral Cortex. Higher Cortical Functions. Figure 32-1. A coronal section through the hemisphere (left) showing the major types of fibers projecting to and from the cerebral.. We do not see a principle contradiction between “subdivisions” and “gradients”. Although gradients define transitions between connectivity profiles in our data, we nevertheless identify regions with differential connectivity (al-EC and pm-EC) which, in our view, is compatible with the term “subdivisions”.

Image: MistyHora CC-BY-SA-3.0. Human brain medial surface. (Entorhinal cortex approximately maps to areas 28 and 34, at lower left.) IP Camera Software and video analytics. Unlimited scaling to any number of cameras and servers. Supports 4,000 IP cameras of around 130 Brands. Over 23 000 CCTV systems with Eocortex are.. entorhinal cortex (plural entorhinal cortexes or entorhinal cortices) (abbreviated as: EC). (anatomy) A part of the brain which, together with the hippocampus, is important to memory functions The EC is also responsible for the pre-processing (familiarity) of the input signals in the reflex nictitating membrane response of classical trace conditioning, the association of impulses from the eye and the ear occurs in the entorhinal cortex.We noticed that the lateral-medial dissociation was not obvious in the movie. We therefore changed the movie and added a part in the middle where we provide a top view on the subregions where the medial-lateral distinction is more obvious (Author response image 1).

Disconnection syndromes are classified as higher function deficits that result from lesions to white matter or association cortices, the latter acting as relay stations between primary motor, sensory, and.. Prominent species differences are apparent with respect to surface area and complexity of the cortical mantle, but the anatomy and overall functional role of the entorhinal cortex appear to be largely conserved throughout the animal realm. The entorhinal cortex is generally subdivided into two domains, the so-called lateral and medial entorhinal cortices (Figure 1; a note of caution: multiple, quite different schemes to subdivide the entorhinal cortex have been proposed, occasionally resulting in substantial confusion among students of this part of the cortex (Witter et al., 1989). The two subdivisions, initially differentiated on the basis of overall differences in morphological features such as types of neurons, packing density and cell sizes and shapes (Brodmann, 1909; Krieg, 1946) are characterized by largely different input-output connectivity (Witter et al., 2000a). The lateral entorhinal cortex, for example, is strongly connected to the perirhinal cortex, olfactory and insular cortex and the amygdala. The medial entorhinal cortex preferentially connects with the postrhinal cortex, the presubiculum, visual association (occipital) and retrosplenial cortices. The two parts of entorhinal cortex also connect differentially to the hippocampal formation. Both target the same neurons in the dentate gyrus and field CA3, while they reciprocally connect to different groups of cells in CA1 and subiculum (Figure 1B). The major problem as said above is the comparative part of the paper. Although the authors obviously aimed to cover a lot of experimental data on the organization of connectivity of the areas under investigation in rodents and monkeys they provide an incorrect presentation of the data with a few exceptions. In the Abstract we read that “anatomical studies have not reported such a distinction in nonhuman primates” which is at least incomplete and more likely incorrect. In the paper the authors refer to studies in the monkey showing differential connections along the proximodistal axis (Witter and Amaral) as well as connectional differences between PRC/PHC and EC (Suzuki and Amaral). The last sentence in the Abstract—“the first evidence that the human EC can be divided into functional subdivisions whose functional connectivity closely parallels the known anatomical connectivity patterns of the rodent lateral and medial EC”—is very much welcome but is in contrast to sentences in the body of the paper. Therefore the Abstract has to be rewritten. News tagged with entorhinal cortex. Despite their common involvement in memory, the human cortex and subcortex display a distinct collection of gene signatures

Dentate gyrus volume is reduced before onset of plaque

Finally, we used a multivariate classifier (linear CSVMC) to further investigate the reliability of the topography of PRC vs PHC preferential connectivity within the EC. A linear support vector machine classifier (Linear CSVMC, Chang and Lin, 2011) was trained and tested on the x-y-z coordinates of all EC voxels across all subjects using PyMVPA 2.2.0 (Hanke et al., 2009). Independent data chunks were defined according to the individual subjects of each study. Each chunk consisted of the same amount of samples (EC voxels). For the purpose of evaluation of classification validity, a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation was performed. In each of the validation steps, a linear support vector machine was trained on the data of all but one subject and tested on the remaining one. Accuracy of the validation step was calculated as the proportion of the samples (voxels) that were classified correctly (as being preferentially connected to PRC or PHC). Overall classification accuracy was defined as the mean accuracy of all validation steps across subjects. Anterior-posterior and lateral-medial gradients of entorhinal connectivity with PRC vs PHC seeds. (A) To test for an anterior-posterior or lateral-medial dissociation of EC connectivity with PRC vs PHC seeds (upper panel, left), we divided the EC template mask into four equal portions (upper panel, right) and extracted mean parameter estimates (betas) from each subsection. (B) Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed significant seed (PRC vs PHC) × anterior-posterior EC section and seed × lateral-medial EC section interactions (p < 0.001 for both data sets; NExp1 = 15, NExp2 = 14). Slice-by-slice plots of connectivity estimates along the longitudinal and transverse EC axis confirmed an anterior-to-posterior and lateral-to-medial dissociation with decreasing PRC-connectivity and increasing PHC-connectivity. As the number of sagittal EC slices differed from anterior to posterior, we divided each coronal EC slice into 5 equal portions (with 1 being most lateral and 5 most medial EC) and calculated mean betas for each portion.eLife posts the editorial decision letter and author response on a selection of the published articles (subject to the approval of the authors). An edited version of the letter sent to the authors after peer review is shown, indicating the substantive concerns or comments; minor concerns are not usually shown. Reviewers have the opportunity to discuss the decision before the letter is sent (see review process). Similarly, the author response typically shows only responses to the major concerns raised by the reviewers.These functional connectivity data suggest that there might be two parallel cortico-hippocampal pathways in humans — one via the EC and one that is direct. The differences in the topographic organization of EC-subicular connectivity and PRC/PHC-subicular connectivity could have important functional implications. One implication is that the EC is not a simple anatomical extension of the PRC and PHC. If that were the case, we would not have observed any reliable difference between neocortical-hippocampal connectivity profiles and EC-hippocampal connectivity profiles. These results add support to the notion that the EC is more than a mere cortico-hippocampal relay (e.g., Lavenex and Amaral, 2000; de Curtis and Paré, 2004). One possibility is that this organization might allow a comparison between EC-gated hippocampal memory signals with direct neocortical input (e.g., Naber et al., 1999). Furthermore, the diffuse nature of LEC/MEC projections along the anterior-posterior hippocampal axis and a structured gradient of direct PRC/POR projections that has been identified in rodents could allow for integration of information across both processing streams (Burwell, 2000; Witter et al., 2000b; Agster and Burwell, 2013).

Перевод слова cortex, американское и британское произношение, транскрипция, словосочетания. brain cortex — кора головного мозга; мозговая кора brain-cortex — кора.. noun entorhinal cortex (plural entorhinal cortexes or entorhinal cortices) (abbreviated as: EC). en Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex are organised to process spatial information irregardless of..

In primates it is located at the rostral end of the temporal lobe and stretches dorsolaterally. It is usually divided into medial and lateral regions with three bands with distinct properties and connectivity running perpendicular across the whole area. A distinguishing characteristic of the EC is the lack of cell bodies where layer IV should be; this layer is called the lamina dissecans. Functional connectivity profiles of parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and perirhinal cortex (PRC) seeds with the EC in Experiment 1. Group results for seed-to-voxel connectivity of bilateral PRC and PHC seeds with the EC shown for Experiment 1 (one-sample t-test; Z > 2.3, pcluster < 0.05, NExp. 1 = 15). Bright regions denote overlapping connectivity with PRC/PHC. Single-subject beta maps were normalized on the group-specific T1-template by ROI-based alignment with ANTS and masked with a manually defined EC ROI. The T1-template has the same resolution (and alignment) as the high-resolution functional EPI volumes (0.8 mm × 0.8 mm × 0.8 mm). See also Figure 1—figure supplement 1 for results of Exp. 2. ROI: region of interest.

By now it is well accepted that the entorhinal cortex is part of a strongly interconnected set of cortical areas that together form the parahippocampal region, which in turn is closely associated with the hippocampal formation on the one hand and with a variety of multimodal association areas of the cortex such as parietal, temporal, and prefrontal cortex (Witter et al., 1989; Burwell et al., 2002). The entorhinal cortex is thus uniquely positioned as an interface between the neocortex and the hippocampal formation (Buzsaki, 1996; Lavenex and Amaral, 2000; Witter et al., 2000b). The entorhinal cortex was part of the brain located in the medial temporal lobe. When the crew of the USS Enterprise-D could not achieve REM sleep in 2367, Doctor Beverly Crusher tried inducing theta waves into their entorhinal cortices, with no effect. (TNG: Night Terrors) The entorhinal cortex is part of the medial temporal lobe or hippocampal memory system and constitutes the major gateway between the hippocampal formation and the neocortex. The entorhinal cortex has initially attracted attention because of its strong reciprocal connections with the.. Moreover, we repeated the classification analysis on the combined data of both studies to predict al-EC and pm-EC functional subregions (based on preferential connectivity with PRC vs PHC) across all participants. Anatomical landmarks for these clusters are described further below in ‘Landmarks for delineation of al-EC and pm-EC’ and al-EC and pm-EC masks in template and MNI space are available online (Source codes 1, 2). Moreover, predicted al-EC and pm-EC subregions as well as the subicular and parahippocampal subregions are shown in a 3D animation in Video 1. cortexの 品詞ごとの意味や使い方. 名詞 可算名詞としての意味・使い方 【語源】としての意味・使い方. 梨状皮質 - Weblio英語基本例文集. entorhinal cortex発音を聞く

For many years researchers had assumed that the connectivity of the human entorhinal cortex was quite similar to that observed in rats and mice. However, it was not possible to check this as the entorhinal cortex measures less than about 1 cm across, which placed it beyond the reach of most commonly available brain-imaging techniques. Now, two independent groups of researchers have used ultra high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal a more complex structure in humans. The fMRI data reveal that the entorhinal cortex is divided into an anterior-lateral (to the front and at the side) subregion and a posterior-medial (to the back and at the centre) subregion in humans. The entorhinal cortex is an area of the brain located in the medial temporal lobe and functions as a hub in a For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Entorhinal cortex Cingulate cortex - Wikipedia. 250 x 301 png 85 КБ. msu.edu. Coronal level 2000 as Cell Stain. 668 x 482 jpeg 123 КБ. www.researchgate.net. (PDF) Cortical efferents of the entorhinal cortex and the. I usually look at entorhinal cortex in coronal slices that are more caudal than the typical dorsal hippocampus slice. In those, I simply go lateral to the external capsule and inferior to the rhinal fissure

The entorhinal cortex has been a focus for research in the early periods of neuroanatomy. Subsequently, interest diminished but was kindled again in the late 70s of the last century. With the discovery of spatially modulated cells, such as the grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex and the striking involvement of entorhinal cortex in a variety of brain diseases, the interest has become stronger than ever. What still needs to be established though is an overarching concept of its functional relevance, taking into account the striking differences between the lateral and medial entorhinal subdivisions, the fact that these two are interconnected by way of the well developed intrinsic associational connections that appear to be organized in a way that is in concert with the topographical organization of entorhinal-hippocampal reciprocal connections. Such an overarching functional notion is a requirement to efficiently probe the functional relevance of the entorhinal cortex in humans. Schematic summary of functional connectivity gradients in the subiculum related to PRC/PHC seeds and EC subdivisions. (A) Functional connectivity analyses revealed preferential connectivity of PRC (red) with the anterior-lateral EC and PHC (blue) with the posterior-medial EC. Regarding the subiculum, PRC showed strongest connectivity with most anterior and proximal parts, whereas PHC showed strongest connectivity with most posterior and distal parts of the subiculum. (B) Anterior-lateral (red) and posterior-medial (blue) EC exhibited a similar dissociation in connectivity with the subiculum along its transverse (proximal-distal) axis but there was no trend for a dissociation of entorhinal connectivity along the longitudinal axis of the subiculum.The PM system also plays a key role in spatial navigation. Cells within the PHC appear to code for specific navigational landmarks (Ekstrom et al., 2003), and some PHC cells have place fields that are larger and more sensitive to environmental cues than hippocampal place cells (Burwell and Hafeman, 2003). Head direction cells, which selectively respond when the animal's head is oriented toward a particular direction in space, are distributed across the RSC, lateral mammillary bodies, anterior thalamus, and presubiculum (Yoder et al., 2011). Human patients with damage to the RSC also exhibit a form of topographical amnesia (Aguirre and D'Esposito, 1999; Epstein, 2008; Maguire, 2001), in which they are unable to use landmarks to orient oneself. The coordinated actions of components of the PM system have been previously described as integrating information about one's position within a global spatial context to construct a first-person spatial representation (Bird and Burgess, 2008).

“In primates, ventral HC and the adjacent EC are situated in a relatively more rostral position […] single-unit recording study of grid-cell-like neurons in nonhuman primates (Killian et al., 2012).” Category:Entorhinal cortex. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. corteccia entorinale (it); Cortex entorhinal (fr); Kortex entorrinal (eu); Энторинальная кора (ru); córtex.. coronal section 7 Basal Forebrain at Le vel AnteriorCommissure of Coronal section at level of sect io n anterior commissure and AC nferior/medial border is entorhinal cortex. ostralborder is Amygdala One of the groups—Maass, Berron et al.—used the imaging data to show that the anterior-lateral and posterior-medial subregions of the entorhinal cortex form distinct patterns of connections with the perirhinal cortex and the parahippocampal cortex, as well as with different parts of the hippocampus. The other group—Navarro Schröder, Haak et al.—studied functional connections across the whole neocortex to come to the same conclusions. What rhymes with entorhinal cortex? Lookup it up at Rhymes.net - the most comprehensive rhyming words dictionary on the web

Razer Cortex brings enhanced gaming performance, system performance, and the ability to discover the best gaming deals on a single platform at just a click away We agree that our Abstract did not cover our findings in their entirety. We have changed the Abstract and now also report that connectivity of PRC/PHC seeds with subiculum differed from al-EC/pm-EC-subicular connectivity. We revised the following paragraph in the Abstract:A note of caution should be added here: the choice for the terms lateral and medial entorhinal cortex is not simply related to a particular anatomical position of these areas in relation to the hippocampal formation and the rhinal fissure. In general, the lateral area occupies a more rostrolateral position versus a more caudomedial position for the medial area (see Figure 1(a)).Interactions within the parahippocampal region and between the parahippocampal region and the hippocampus proper have been analyzed with electrophysiological techniques both in vivo and in vitro. Neurons in layers II and III of the EC target different subfields of the hippocampus, with different species specificity: In the rat and monkey, layer II connects the EC to the dentate gyrus and CA3, while layer III projects to CA1 and subiculum; however, in the mouse, EC layer II sends terminals to dentate gyrus only and the hippocampus is innervated by layer III. PC and EC are strictly and reciprocally interconnected. Entorhinal Cortex. ⌬ EC. Controls (n ϭ 23) Right Left Right TLE (n ϭ 18) Right Left Left TLE (n ϭ 21) FIG 3. Successive 2-mm coronal MR images demonstrate the location of the PCA. A is the most..

“Studies in rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that EC can be divided into subregions that connect differentially with perirhinal (PRC) vs parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and with hippocampal subfields along the proximo-distal axis.”Our understanding of the entorhinal cortex is still rather premature, and to a large extent, influenced by our current functional concept for MEC. The generally accepted division of the entorhinal cortex into at least two functionally different domains stresses the need for an answer to the questions whether or not they differ with respect to their intrinsic wiring and neuronal makeup, in addition to their gross differences with respect to cortical and subcortical connectivity summarized above. The entorhinal network, grosso modo, encompasses three different (groups of) elements, elements receiving inputs, elements that provide output, and elements that contribute to the intrinsic architecture of the area. This subdivision into three functionally different elements and roles to be played by different neurons does not necessarily have an exclusive character; it is actually quite likely that all three elements might be an integral part of one and the same neuron; however, specializations may occur. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06426.017 In addition, we now also provide al-EC and pm-EC masks, which clearly show the lateral-medial dissociation, for online download. These were created by repeating the multivariate classification approach, which reveals predictions for PRC and PHC preferential connectivity for each voxel, across all subjects. We further describe approximate anatomical boundaries of these al-EC and pm-EC subdivisions. We also provide these EC subregions as masks in template and MNI space. We have added a subsection entitled “Landmarks for delineation of al-EC and pm-EC” in the Results section, which describes the creation of al- and pm-EC masks and their anatomical boundaries.

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