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Латинское название. Plutonium. 6,74 The isotope plutonium-238 has a half-life of 87.74 years.[80] It emits a large amount of thermal energy with low levels of both gamma rays/particles and spontaneous neutron rays/particles.[81] Being an alpha emitter, it combines high energy radiation with low penetration and thereby requires minimal shielding. A sheet of paper can be used to shield against the alpha particles emitted by plutonium-238. One kilogram of the isotope can generate about 570 watts of heat.[6][81] A mixed oxide fuel can also be created when the uranium powder is packed along with plutonium oxide. The hazards present at fuel fabrication facilities—mainly chemical and radiological—are similar..

Spent nuclear fuel from normal light water reactors contains plutonium, but it is a mixture of plutonium-242, 240, 239 and 238. The mixture is not sufficiently enriched for efficient nuclear weapons, but can be used once as MOX fuel. Accidental neutron capture causes the amount of plutonium-242 and 240 to grow each time the plutonium is irradiated in a reactor with low-speed "thermal" neutrons, so that after the second cycle, the plutonium can only be consumed by fast neutron reactors. If fast neutron reactors are not available (the normal case), excess plutonium is usually discarded, and forms the longest-lived component of nuclear waste. The desire to consume this plutonium and other transuranic fuels and reduce the radiotoxicity of the waste is the usual reason nuclear engineers give to make fast neutron reactors. Латинское название. Plutonium. As. 74.922 Plutonium is a reactive metal. In moist air or moist argon, the metal oxidizes rapidly, producing a mixture of oxides and hydrides.[3] If the metal is exposed long enough to a limited amount of water vapor, a powdery surface coating of PuO2 is formed.[3] Also formed is plutonium hydride but an excess of water vapor forms only PuO2.[29]

The U.S. Government air transport regulations permit the transport of plutonium by air, subject to restrictions on other dangerous materials carried on the same flight, packaging requirements, and stowage in the rearmost part of the aircraft.[106] Welcome to the ComputerCraft Wiki! 429 pages and 7,740 edits since January 27th, 2012 With this coating, the metal is pyrophoric, meaning it can ignite spontaneously, so plutonium metal is usually handled in an inert, dry atmosphere of nitrogen or argon. Oxygen retards the effects of moisture and acts as a passivating agent.[3]

From 5etools Community Wiki. Jump to: navigation, search. This wiki attempts to give an overview for users to support and edjucate themselves over the features of the projects and how to best use.. MOX fuel improves total burnup. A fuel rod is reprocessed after three years of use to remove waste products, which by then account for 3% of the total weight of the rods.[30] Any uranium or plutonium isotopes produced during those three years are left and the rod goes back into production.[note 10] The presence of up to 1% gallium per mass in weapon grade plutonium alloy has the potential to interfere with long-term operation of a light water reactor.[77] Metallic plutonium is a fire hazard, especially if the material is finely divided. In a moist environment, plutonium forms hydrides on its surface, which are pyrophoric and may ignite in air at room temperature. Plutonium expands up to 70% in volume as it oxidizes and thus may break its container.[105] The radioactivity of the burning material is an additional hazard. Magnesium oxide sand is probably the most effective material for extinguishing a plutonium fire. It cools the burning material, acting as a heat sink, and also blocks off oxygen. Special precautions are necessary to store or handle plutonium in any form; generally a dry inert gas atmosphere is required.[105][note 11] Plutonium Basic Facts. Atomic Number: 94. Symbol: Pu. Atomic Weight: 244.0642. Discovery: G.T. Seaborg, J.W. Kennedy, E.M. McMillan, A.C. Wohl (1940, United States). The first sample of..

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Plutonium is the heaviest primordial element by virtue of its most stable isotope, plutonium-244, whose half-life of about 80 million years is just long enough for the element to be found in trace quantities in nature.[1] Plutonium is mostly a byproduct of nuclear reactions in reactors where some of the neutrons released by the fission process convert uranium-238 nuclei into plutonium.[2] Some plutonium chemical compounds; plutonium dioxide, plutonium nitride, plutonium carbide, plutonium nitrate, plutonium trifluoride, plutonium chloride, etc.. To create Plutonium, you need to put a Fuel Rod (Depleted Uranium) into a Thermal Centrifuge. It will output some Uranium 238, a Tiny Pile of Plutonium (9 needed to craft 1 Plutonium), and some Iron Dust (IndustrialCraft 2)..

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The isotopes of plutonium range in mass number from 228 to 247. The primary decay modes of isotopes with mass numbers lower than the most stable isotope, plutonium-244, are spontaneous fission and α emission, mostly forming uranium (92 protons) and neptunium (93 protons) isotopes as decay products (neglecting the wide range of daughter nuclei created by fission processes). The primary decay mode for isotopes with mass numbers higher than plutonium-244 is β emission, mostly forming americium (95 protons) isotopes as decay products. Plutonium-241 is the parent isotope of the neptunium decay series, decaying to americium-241 via β or electron emission.[5][21] Kirjaudu sisään Liity käyttäjäksi. Suomi English. Plutonium 74. www.mikseri.net/plutonium74/. Artisti. Kuvat

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Menu. Plutonium T6 (BO2). All discussions about the PlutoT6 Client. server not on the list. LaserHead74 To create Plutonium, you need to put a Fuel Rod (Depleted Uranium) into a Thermal Centrifuge. It will output some Uranium 238, a Tiny Pile of Plutonium (9 needed to craft 1 Plutonium), and some Iron Dust (IndustrialCraft 2). Follow the guidelines to make Uranium Fuel to make Plutonium fuel from Plutonium. Another option is to create MOX Nuclear Fuel: 6 Uranium 238 and 3 Plutonium.

Plutonium is an element in which the 5f electrons are the transition border between delocalized and localized; it is therefore considered one of the most complex elements.[33] The anomalous behavior of plutonium is caused by its electronic structure. The energy difference between the 6d and 5f subshells is very low. The size of the 5f shell is just enough to allow the electrons to form bonds within the lattice, on the very boundary between localized and bonding behavior. The proximity of energy levels leads to multiple low-energy electron configurations with near equal energy levels. This leads to competing 5fn7s2 and 5fn-17s26d1 configurations, which causes the complexity of its chemical behavior. The highly directional nature of 5f orbitals is responsible for directional covalent bonds in molecules and complexes of plutonium.[9] Plutonium, benannt nach seinem Entdecker (Peter Sowjetsky Plutonium), ist ein radioaktives Chemisches Element der Qualitätsstufe 4A => (Perry Rhodan System), das grün leuchtet und das sehr leicht zu beschaffen ist, z.B. bei libyschen Terroristen Turtonator (Japanese: バクガメス Bakugames) is a dual-type Fire/Dragon Pokémon introduced in Generation VII. It is not known to evolve into or from any other Pokémon. Turtonator is a bipedal, turtle-like Pokémon with a spiny shell During and after the end of World War II, scientists working on the Manhattan Project and other nuclear weapons research projects conducted studies of the effects of plutonium on laboratory animals and human subjects.[69] Animal studies found that a few milligrams of plutonium per kilogram of tissue is a lethal dose.[70] අනුගාමිකයන් 764, අනුගමනය කරමින් 278, පළ කිරීම් 132 - Instagram ඡායාරූප සහ වීඩියෝ @plutonium_239ගෙන් බලන්න

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  1. g you survive.
  2. Backgrounder on Plutonium. Printable Version. Plutonium is a radioactive metallic element with the Plutonium-238 has been used to power batteries for some heart pacemakers, as well as provide a..
  3. Referenzen und weiterführende Informationen: [1] Englischer Wikipedia-Artikel plutonium. [1] PONS Englisch-Deutsch, Stichwort: plutonium. [1] Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary plutonium. [1] Dictionary.com Englisch-Englisches Wörterbuch, Thesaurus und Enzyklopädie plutonium
  4. Several earlier Nuclear Energy Agency studies have looked at aspects of plutonium use. They have also estimated the quantities of plutonium that will be produced in spent thermal reactor fuel and the..

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  1. Edwin McMillan had recently named the first transuranium element after the planet Neptune and suggested that element 94, being the next element in the series, be named for what was then considered the next planet, Pluto.[6][note 2] Seaborg originally considered the name "plutium", but later thought that it did not sound as good as "plutonium."[51] He chose the letters "Pu" as a joke, which passed without notice into the periodic table.[note 3] Alternative names considered by Seaborg and others were "ultimium" or "extremium" because of the erroneous belief that they had found the last possible element on the periodic table.[52]
  2. Plutonium ialah suatu unsur kimia dalam jadual berkala yang memiliki simbol Pu dan nombor atom 94. Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas. Plutonium, 94Pu. Ciri-ciri umum. Rupa
  3. The nuclear properties of plutonium-239 were also studied; researchers found that when it is hit by a neutron it breaks apart (fissions) by releasing more neutrons and energy. These neutrons can hit other atoms of plutonium-239 and so on in an exponentially fast chain reaction. This can result in an explosion large enough to destroy a city if enough of the isotope is concentrated to form a critical mass.[30]
  4. The breakthrough with plutonium was at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge by Egon Bretscher and Norman Feather. They realized that a slow neutron reactor fuelled with uranium would theoretically produce substantial amounts of plutonium-239 as a by-product. This is because U-238 absorbs slow neutrons and forms a new isotope U-239. The new isotope's nucleus rapidly emits an electron through beta decay producing a new element with a mass of 239 and an atomic number of 93. This element's nucleus then also emits an electron and becomes a new element of mass 239 but with an atomic number 94 and a much greater half-life. Bretscher and Feather showed theoretically feasible grounds that element 94 would be readily 'fissionable' by both slow and fast neutrons, and had the added advantage of being chemically different from uranium, and could easily be separated from it.
  5. Unlike most materials, plutonium increases in density when it melts, by 2.5%, but the liquid metal exhibits a linear decrease in density with temperature.[8] Near the melting point, the liquid plutonium has also very high viscosity and surface tension as compared to other metals.[9]
  6. ated funding for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, which had managed the Yucca Mountain site for 25 years, canceling the program.[68]

At room temperature, pure plutonium is silvery in color but gains a tarnish when oxidized.[26] The element displays four common ionic oxidation states in aqueous solution and one rare one:[12] with plutonium whole-body. deposition ≥74 Bq compared to. <74 Bq (adjusted for age and year of. MRR not significantly associated with plutonium body burden (<74 Bq compared to

Plutonium Cells produce twice as much energy and heat as Uranium cells (making it 20 EU/heat per tick, 40 EU/heat if next to 1 other Plutonium Cell, 60 EU/heat if next to 2 other Plutonium Cells, etc.) and they last twice as long. (This behaviour can be customized inside the config files) This results power generation of 8-40 million EU per cycle (5 hours and 34 minutes real time). A sphere of simulated plutonium surrounded by neutron-reflecting tungsten carbide blocks in a re-enactment of Harry Daghlian's 1945 experiment

Plutonium is silver when pure and turns a yellowish color when it oxidizes. A large piece of Plutonium is warm to the touch, and even larger pieces produce enough heat to boil water Plutonium cells can also be produced by adding a piece of UU-Matter to Uranium Dust, compressing the resulting Plutonium Dust and so on. A commonly cited quote by Ralph Nader, states that a pound of plutonium dust spread into the atmosphere would be enough to kill 8 billion people. However, calculations show that one pound of plutonium could kill no more than 2 million people by inhalation. This makes the toxicity of plutonium roughly equivalent with that of nerve gas.[96] Nader's views were challenged in 1976 by the American physicist Michio Kaku, which interaction he describes in his book, Nuclear Power, Both Sides: The Best Arguments for and Against the Most Controversial Technology. Kaku's own estimate is that a generally fatal dose is more like 200 milligrams.[97] Alpha decay, the release of a high-energy helium nucleus, is the most common form of radioactive decay for plutonium.[5] A 5 kg mass of 239Pu contains about 7025125000000000000♠12.5×1024 atoms. With a half-life of 24,100 years, about 7013115000000000000♠11.5×1012 of its atoms decay each second by emitting a 5.157 MeV alpha particle. This amounts to 9.68 watts of power. Heat produced by the deceleration of these alpha particles makes it warm to the touch.[6][7] A team led by Glenn T. Seaborg and Edwin McMillan at the University of California, Berkeley, first synthesized plutonium in 1940 by bombarding uranium-238 with deuterons. Trace amounts of plutonium were subsequently discovered in nature. Producing plutonium in useful quantities for the first time was a major part of the Manhattan Project during World War II, which developed the first atomic bombs. The first nuclear test, "Trinity" (July 1945), and the second atomic bomb used to destroy a city (Nagasaki, Japan, in August 1945), "Fat Man", both had cores of plutonium-239. Human radiation experiments studying plutonium were conducted without informed consent, and several criticality accidents, some lethal, occurred during and after the war. Disposal of plutonium waste from nuclear power plants and dismantled nuclear weapons built during the Cold War is a nuclear-proliferation and environmental concern. Other sources of plutonium in the environment are fallout from numerous above-ground nuclear tests (now banned).

This WebElements periodic table page contains isotope data for the element plutonium. Isotope abundances of plutonium. In the above, the most intense ion is set to 100% since this corresponds.. Plutonium. Plutonium Plutonium is a radioactive, silver metal that can be used to create or destroy. While it was used for Plutonium was first produced and isolated in 1940 and was used to make the Fat Man atomic bomb.. Plutonium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with the symbol Pu and atomic number 94. It is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, and forms a dull coating when oxidized. The element normally exhibits six allotropes and four oxidation states The subject of this article is from the Atlas Rises update.The information from this article is up-to-date as of 23 July, 2018. The subject of this article is from a previous version of No Man's Sky and is now considered obsolete.The information from this article is kept for historical purposes and should not be..

Plutonium - ATLauncher Wiki

Please visit the Plutonium element page for information specific to the chemical element of the periodic table. Plutonium, isotope of mass 239. ET2Z8EJJ1X we are working on some upgrade and improvements Plutonium-238 (plutonium oxide). Nuclear fission reactions release enough energy to increase the temperature of this sample of plutonium to red-heat. The heat produced by plutonium has been.. Alpha. 2.144 million years. Plutonium (Pu) Plutonium7. Scratcher Joined 3 years ago United States. Plutonium7 isn't following anyone yet. Comments

Plutonium 239 is a highly dangerous and radioactive element. It can not be found in nature, but can be synthesized from Uranium 238 in the Nuclear Reactor. Plutonium can be obtained by placing Depleted Uranium or Depleted MOX Fuel Rods in a Thermal Centrifuge. | In this process, a deuteron hitting uranium-238 produces two neutrons and neptunium-238, which spontaneously decays by emitting negative beta particles to form plutonium-238. plutonium is extremely scarce on earth because the half-lives of its isotopes are generally much shorter than isotopes of uranium, so the most of the plutonium that formed in supernovas and was..

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  1. Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with the symbol Pu and atomic number 94. It is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air..
  2. Atomic Weight: 74.921595(6). Description: Plutonium is a radioactive element that is long-lived. Where It's Used: Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel and in nuclear weapons
  3. On April 5, 1944, Emilio Segrè at Los Alamos received the first sample of reactor-produced plutonium from Oak Ridge.[57] Within ten days, he discovered that reactor-bred plutonium had a higher concentration of the isotope plutonium-240 than cyclotron-produced plutonium. Plutonium-240 has a high spontaneous fission rate, raising the overall background neutron level of the plutonium sample. The original gun-type plutonium weapon, code-named "Thin Man", had to be abandoned as a result—the increased number of spontaneous neutrons meant that nuclear pre-detonation (a fizzle) would be likely.
  4. e the uptake of plutonium in the body in order to develop safety standards for working with plutonium.[69] Other experiments directed by the United States Atomic Energy Commission and the Manhattan Project continued into the 1970s. The Plutonium Files chronicles the lives of the subjects of the secret program by na

Plutonium fuel cell has a volume of 0.25 and a weight of 0.88. It does 0 bashing damage and 0 cutting damage. You can find more information here In a breeder reactor uranium-238 captures neutrons and undergoes negative beta decay to become plutonium-239. This synthetic, fissionable element can also sustain a chain reaction Trace amounts of at least three plutonium isotopes (plutonium-238, 239, and 244) can be found in nature. Small traces of plutonium-239, a few parts per trillion, and its decay products are naturally found in some concentrated ores of uranium,[41] such as the natural nuclear fission reactor in Oklo, Gabon.[42] The ratio of plutonium-239 to uranium at the Cigar Lake Mine uranium deposit ranges from 6988240000000000000♠2.4×10−12 to 6989440000000000000♠44×10−12.[43] Even smaller amounts of primordial plutonium-244 occur naturally due to its relatively long half-life of about 80 million years.[44] These trace amounts of 239Pu originate in the following fashion: On rare occasions, 238U undergoes spontaneous fission, and in the process, the nucleus emits one or two free neutrons with some kinetic energy. When one of these neutrons strikes the nucleus of another 238U atom, it is absorbed by the atom, which becomes 239U. With a relatively short half-life, U-239 decays to neptunium-239 (239Np), and then 239Np decays into 239Pu.

Even though alpha radiation cannot penetrate the skin, ingested or inhaled plutonium does irradiate internal organs.[30] The skeleton, where plutonium is absorbed, and the liver, where it collects and becomes concentrated, are at risk.[29] Plutonium is not absorbed into the body efficiently when ingested; only 0.04% of plutonium oxide is absorbed after ingestion.[30] Plutonium absorbed by the body is excreted very slowly, with a biological half-life of 200 years.[90] Plutonium passes only slowly through cell membranes and intestinal boundaries, so absorption by ingestion and incorporation into bone structure proceeds very slowly.[91][92] Plutonium 74. Sotamies. G Major. The following tracks will sound good when mixed with Plutonium 74 - Sotamies, because they have similar tempos, adjacent Camelot values, and complementary styles

Information and links to do with Firefox 74. This may be useful for Mozilla contributors actively working on the release. It is also a record for future reference. Release owner: Pascal Chevrel (:pascalc). Corresponding ESR release: 68.6.0 During the decay of plutonium, three types of radiation are released—alpha, beta, and gamma. Alpha radiation can travel only a short distance and cannot travel through the outer, dead layer of human skin. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin, but cannot go all the way through the body. Gamma radiation can go all the way through the body.[89] Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation are all forms of ionizing radiation. Either acute or longer-term exposure carries a danger of serious health outcomes including radiation sickness, genetic damage, cancer, and death. The danger increases with the amount of exposure.

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Plutonium IW5 r554 is now live! Open your Plutonium Launcher to automatically update. This update brings the AK-74u and Rust to MW3! Check this thread for full details:https.. Plutonium is a chemical element with atomic number 94 which means there are 94 protons and 94 Plutonium is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, and.. Plutonium B. From EpicDuel Wiki. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Plutonium B. Squeeze it to see if it's ripe. Item Details

Plutonium - Industrial-Craft-Wiki

Plutonium offers a unique Black Ops 2 & Modern Warfare 3 experience. Building on many years of research and development, Plutonium delivers a solid and refreshing gaming experience like none.. 36 hp/t19 hp/tPower-to-weight ratio. 59 km/h forward18 km/h back53 km/h forward16 km/h backSpeed. Armament. 105 mm L7A3 cannonMain weapon. 50 roundsAmmunition. 15 roundsFirst-order. 6.7 / 8.7 sReload. -6° / 9°Vertical guidance. two-planeStabilizer. 12.7 mm M2HB machine gunMachinegun Plutonium is a radioactive, metallic, chemical element. It has the symbol Pu and the atomic number 94. It is the element used in most modern nuclear weapons. The most important, albeit not most stable.. Large stockpiles of weapons-grade plutonium were built up by both the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War. The U.S. reactors at Hanford and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina produced 103 tonnes,[64] and an estimated 170 tonnes of military-grade plutonium was produced in USSR.[65][note 8] Each year about 20 tonnes of the element is still produced as a by-product of the nuclear power industry.[12] As much as 1000 tonnes of plutonium may be in storage with more than 200 tonnes of that either inside or extracted from nuclear weapons.[30] SIPRI estimated the world plutonium stockpile in 2007 as about 500 tons, divided equally between weapon and civilian stocks.[66] Therefore about 74% of all absorption reactions result in radiative capture of neutron. Plutonium 241. Comparison of total fission cross-section and cross-section for radiative capture

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Plutonium - Wikiwand Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas

Plutonium-238 (plutonium oxide). Nuclear fission reactions release enough energy to increase the temperature of this sample of plutonium to red-heat. The heat produced by plutonium has been.. This new development was also confirmed in independent work by Edwin M. McMillan and Philip Abelson at Berkeley Radiation Laboratory also in 1940. Nicholas Kemmer of the Cambridge team proposed the names neptunium for the new element 93 and plutonium for 94 by analogy with the outer planets Neptune and Pluto beyond Uranus (uranium being element 92). The Americans fortuitously suggested the same names. Article possibly outdated (. v4.90. )This article has not been verified to be up to date for the latest version of the Discovery mod. The last edit was made on 06.01.2019 (DD/MM/YYYY). You may help by updating it, often by using the code generator Hidden Wiki - Deep Web Links - Dark Web Links. After hours of work, we are happy to provide you with the best deep web links of 2017. You may share this list with everyone if you like

Physical propertiesEdit

Plutonium 74 on suomalainen psykedeelistä rytmimusiikkia esittävä yhtye, joka on perustettu vuonna 1998. Yhtyeen johtohahmo on näyttelijä Ylermi Rajamaa (laulu, koskettimet). Heidän tunnetuin kappaleensa lienee Juoppohullun päiväkirja -elokuvasta tuttu Loppulaulu (2008) Read Plutonium 74's bio and find out more about Plutonium 74's songs, albums, and chart history. Biography. Plutonium 74 is an alternative melodic finnish psychedelic rock/folk/reggae/jazz band.. Minute traces of plutonium are usually found in the human body due to the 550 atmospheric and underwater nuclear tests that have been carried out, and to a small number of major nuclear accidents. Most atmospheric and underwater nuclear testing was stopped by the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, which was signed and ratified by the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and other nations. Continued atmospheric nuclear weapons testing since 1963 by non-treaty nations included those by China (atomic bomb test above the Gobi Desert in 1964, hydrogen bomb test in 1967, and follow-on tests), and France (tests as recently as the 1990s). Because it is deliberately manufactured for nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors, plutonium-239 is the most abundant isotope of plutonium by far.[30] This page was last modified on 1 May 2020, at 19:07.Content is available under Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.

Isotopes and synthesisEdit

Because of the presence of plutonium-240 in reactor-bred plutonium, the implosion design was developed for the "Fat Man" and "Trinity" weaponsToxicity issues aside, care must be taken to avoid the accumulation of amounts of plutonium which approach critical mass, particularly because plutonium's critical mass is only a third of that of uranium-235.[6] A critical mass of plutonium emits lethal amounts of neutrons and gamma rays.[100] Plutonium in solution is more likely to form a critical mass than the solid form due to moderation by the hydrogen in water.[12] Online radioactive decay calculator that allows you to find out the radioactivity decay in Plutonium (Pu) 239. Note: The calculation of radioactivity in minerals is based on certain assumptions Plutonium is rarely found in uranium ores. It can be made by bombarding uranium with neutrons. Plutonium was used in bombs and reactors. Small quantities are used in thermo-electric generators

Plutonium 239 Joined 4y ago. Dying of hate. Plutonium 239. Affiliation. 105th Inc Plutonium is more dangerous when inhaled than when ingested. The risk of lung cancer increases once the total radiation dose equivalent of inhaled plutonium exceeds 400 mSv.[93] The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that the lifetime cancer risk from inhaling 5,000 plutonium particles, each about 3 µm wide, to be 1% over the background U.S. average.[94] Ingestion or inhalation of large amounts may cause acute radiation poisoning and death; no human is known to have died because of inhaling or ingesting plutonium, and many people have measurable amounts of plutonium in their bodies.[78] In December 1958, during a process of purifying plutonium at Los Alamos, a critical mass was formed in a mixing vessel, which resulted in the death of a chemical operator named Cecil Kelley.[104] Other nuclear accidents have occurred in the Soviet Union, Japan, the United States, and many other countries.[104] Plutonium (Pu), radioactive chemical element of the actinoid series of the periodic table, atomic number 94. It is the most important transuranium element because of its use as fuel in certain types of..

Plutonium - No Man's Sky Wiki

Plutonium-238 is synthesized by bombarding uranium-238 with deuterons (D, the nuclei of heavy hydrogen) in the following reaction:[24] Trace amounts of plutonium are found in some uranium ores of ratios of a few parts per trillion, mostly the isotope No mineral species with significant plutonium have been described. General Properties Plutonium isotopes undergo radioactive decay, which produces decay heat. Different isotopes produce different amounts of heat per mass. The decay heat is usually listed as watt/kilogram, or milliwatt/gram. In case of larger pieces of plutonium (e.g. a weapon pit) and inadequate heat removal the resulting self-heating may be significant. All isotopes produce weak gamma on decay.

Plutonium 74's profile including the latest music, albums, songs, music videos and more updates Isotopes and compounds of plutonium are radioactive and accumulate in bone marrow. Contamination by plutonium oxide has resulted from nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents, including military nuclear accidents where nuclear weapons have burned.[87] Studies of the effects of these smaller releases, as well as of the widespread radiation poisoning sickness and death following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, have provided considerable information regarding the dangers, symptoms and prognosis of radiation poisoning, which in the case of the Japanese Hibakusha/survivors was largely unrelated to direct plutonium exposure.[88]

Decay heat and fission propertiesEdit

74 Wolfram. От назв. мнерала ВОЛЬФРАМ (нем.) 1781 Шееле Швеция. 94 Plutonium. В честь планеты плутон. 1940 Сиборг с сотр Plutonium has six allotropes at ambient pressure: alpha (α), beta (β), gamma (γ), delta (δ), delta prime (δ'), & epsilon (ε)[11]

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As plutonium cells generate a lot of heat, managing reactors containing plutonium is a bit tricky as it's harder to maximise the energy potential of each cell while trying to keep the reactor running for as long as possible. Experimental-Only Content: This information has been updated to the v2.X version of IC². Plutonium 239 is a highly dangerous and radioactive element. It can not be found in nature, but can be synthesized from Uranium 238 in the Nuclear Reactor Plutonium-238 has also been used successfully to power artificial heart pacemakers, to reduce the risk of repeated surgery.[83][84] It has been largely replaced by lithium-based primary cells, but as of 2014[update] there were somewhere between 50 and 100 plutonium-powered pacemakers still implanted and functioning in living patients.[85] Plutonium-238 was studied as a way to provide supplemental heat to scuba diving.[86] Plutonium-238 mixed with beryllium is used to generate neutrons for research purposes.[30] Plutonium-238 and 239 are the most widely synthesized isotopes.[6] Plutonium-239 is synthesized via the following reaction using uranium (U) and neutrons (n) via beta decay (β−) with neptunium (Np) as an intermediate:[22]

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Compounds and chemistryEdit

Plutonium (chemical symbol Pu) is a chemical element with atomic number 94. It belongs to the class of elements called transuranic elements whose atomic number is higher than 92, the atomic number of uranium Plutonium The entire plutonium weapon design effort at Los Alamos was soon changed to the more complicated implosion device, code-named "Fat Man." With an implosion weapon, a solid (or, in later designs, hollow) sphere of plutonium is compressed to a high density with explosive lenses—a technically more daunting task than the simple gun-type design, but necessary to use plutonium for weapons purposes. (Enriched uranium, by contrast, can be used with either method.)[57] Plutonium Team Black Ops 2 Plutonium Free Download for All Platforms Wooden AK-74 handguard (6P20 Sb.6)? 認証. キャンセル. WIKIの操作を続ける

A paper documenting the discovery was prepared by the team and sent to the journal Physical Review in March 1941.[30] The paper was withdrawn before publication after the discovery that an isotope of the new element (plutonium-239) could undergo nuclear fission in a way that might be useful in an atomic bomb. Publication was delayed until a year after the end of World War II due to security concerns.[15] Merkillisen Plutonium 74 -rytmiorkesterin taustajoukot lähestyivät Soundin verkkotoimitusta kryptisellä viestillä. Ilmoituksen ydin näyttäisi olevan, että bändi on kolmen vuoden tauon jälkeen taas.. Americium-241, the decay product of plutonium-241, has half-life of 430 years, 1.2 spontaneous fissions per gram per second, and decay heat of 114 watts per kilogram. As its decay produces highly penetrative gamma rays, its presence in plutonium, determined by the original concentration of plutonium-241 and the sample age, increases the radiation exposure of surrounding structures and personnel.

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The u/plutonium743 community on Reddit. Reddit gives you the best of the internet in one place. plutonium743. 1,919 post karma 45,553 comment karma. send a private messageredditor for 5 years The twin Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977, each containing a 500 watt plutonium power source. Over 30 years later, each source is still producing about 300 watts which allows limited operation of each spacecraft.[82] An earlier version of the same technology powered five Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages, starting with Apollo 12 in 1969.[30]

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In 2004, a safe was discovered during excavations of a burial trench at the Hanford nuclear site. Inside the safe were various items, including a large glass bottle containing a whitish slurry which was subsequently identified as the oldest sample of weapons-grade plutonium known to exist. Isotope analysis by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory indicated that the plutonium in the bottle was manufactured in the X-10 reactor at Oak Ridge during 1944.[59][60][61] Plutonium Case and Clock Face Upgrade Kit. Self-adhesive Pre-cut Carpet Set. Tyre Transfer Kit. Issues 74-77 Delayed. Issue 73 Because of self-irradiation, a sample of plutonium fatigues throughout its crystal structure, meaning the ordered arrangement of its atoms becomes disrupted by radiation with time.[9] Self-irradiation can also lead to annealing which counteracts some of the fatigue effects as temperature increases above 100 K.[10]

The color shown by plutonium solutions depends on both the oxidation state and the nature of the acid anion.[27] It is the acid anion that influences the degree of complexing—how atoms connect to a central atom—of the plutonium species. DSDPlus is a Win32 application capable of reliably decoding multiple types of digital audio formats commonly found on VHF, UHF and 800 MHz, including (but not necessarily limited to): P25 Phase 1. ProVoice EDACS Digital voice Construction of the Hanford B Reactor, the first industrial-sized nuclear reactor for the purposes of material production, was completed in March 1945. B Reactor produced the fissile material for the plutonium weapons used during World War II.[note 6] B, D and F were the initial reactors built at Hanford, and six additional plutonium-producing reactors were built later at the site.[58] Tungsten №74 183,84. Re. Neptunium №93 (237). Pu. Plutonium №94 (244). Am. Americium №95 (243)

The presence of these many allotropes makes machining plutonium very difficult, as it changes state very readily. For example, the α form exists at room temperature in unalloyed plutonium. It has machining characteristics similar to cast iron but changes to the plastic and malleable β form (beta) at slightly higher temperatures.[13] The reasons for the complicated phase diagram are not entirely understood. The α form has a low-symmetry monoclinic structure, hence its brittleness, strength, compressibility, and poor thermal conductivity.[11] The 74HC4051D, 74HC4052D are high speed CMOS ANALOG MULTIPLEXER/DEMULTIPLEXER fabricated with silicon gate C2MOS technology. They achieve the high speed operation similar to.. Some tips from 74 Creative Strategies for Electronic Producers. Half Waif: Making Space to Create. Find out how she works Plutonium-238 is a very powerful alpha emitter; as alpha particles are easily blocked, this makes the plutonium-238 isotope suitable for usage in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and..

To create Plutonium, you need to put a Fuel Rod (Depleted Uranium) into a Thermal Centrifuge. It will output some Uranium 238, a Tiny Pile of Plutonium (9 needed to craft 1 Plutonium), and some Iron Dust (IndustrialCraft 2).. The basic chemistry of plutonium was found to resemble uranium after a few months of initial study.[30] Early research was continued at the secret Metallurgical Laboratory of the University of Chicago. On August 20, 1942, a trace quantity of this element was isolated and measured for the first time. About 50 micrograms of plutonium-239 combined with uranium and fission products was produced and only about 1 microgram was isolated.[41][53] This procedure enabled chemists to determine the new element's atomic weight.[54][note 4]

Plutonium is an element that takes advantage of the magic relationship between 47 and 2: 47 plus 2 is 49, and 47 times 2 is 94. Plutonium has five crystal structures with (mostly) distinct properties: α: The most dangerous phase, except for δ. β: Discovered by a mink farmer with too many eyes.. Plutonium alloys can be produced by adding a metal to molten plutonium. If the alloying metal is sufficiently reductive, plutonium can be added in the form of oxides or halides. The δ phase plutonium-gallium and plutonium-aluminium alloys are produced by adding plutonium(III) fluoride to molten gallium or aluminium, which has the advantage of avoiding dealing directly with the highly reactive plutonium metal.[34] DROP Not obtainable as a drop. REWARD Rewarded to players upon completion of E2-9 of Continuum Turbulence, cannot be re/obtained otherwise. There is no exclusive equipment for this T-Doll. Stats. Equipment. Tiles. Affects assault rifles. Increase damage by 15%. Increase accuracy by 25%. Skill1

In the case of human subjects, this involved injecting solutions containing (typically) five micrograms of plutonium into hospital patients thought to be either terminally ill, or to have a life expectancy of less than ten years either due to age or chronic disease condition.[69] This was reduced to one microgram in July 1945 after animal studies found that the way plutonium distributed itself in bones was more dangerous than radium.[70] Many of these experiments resulted in strong mutation. Most of the subjects, Eileen Welsome says, were poor, powerless, and sick.[71] The government covered up most of these radiation mishaps until 1993, when President Bill Clinton ordered a change of policy and federal agencies then made available relevant records. The resulting investigation was undertaken by the president’s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, and it uncovered much of the material about plutonium research on humans. The committee issued a controversial 1995 report which said that "wrongs were committed" but it did not condemn those who perpetrated them.[71] Plutonium can form alloys and intermediate compounds with most other metals. Exceptions include lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium of the alkali metals; and magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium of the alkaline earth metals; and europium and ytterbium of the rare earth metals.[29] Partial exceptions include the refractory metals chromium, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, and tungsten, which are soluble in liquid plutonium, but insoluble or only slightly soluble in solid plutonium.[29] Gallium, aluminium, americium, scandium and cerium can stabilize the δ phase of plutonium for room temperature. Silicon, indium, zinc and zirconium allow formation of metastable δ state when rapidly cooled. High amounts of hafnium, holmium and thallium also allows retaining some of the δ phase at room temperature. Neptunium is the only element that can stabilize the α phase at higher temperatures.[9] Cerium is used as a chemical simulant of plutonium for development of containment, extraction, and other technologies.[32] A ring of weapons-grade 99.96% pure electrorefined plutonium, enough for one bomb core. The ring weighs 5.3 kg, is ca. 11 cm in diameter and its shape helps with criticality safety.

During World War II the U.S. government established the Manhattan Project, which was tasked with developing an atomic bomb. The three primary research and production sites of the project were the plutonium production facility at what is now the Hanford Site, the uranium enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the weapons research and design laboratory, now known as Los Alamos National Laboratory.[56] Python Wiki. Merchandise. Community Awards Plutonium 74 Several populations of people who have been exposed to plutonium dust (e.g. people living down-wind of Nevada test sites, Nagasaki survivors, nuclear facility workers, and "terminally ill" patients injected with Pu in 1945–46 to study Pu metabolism) have been carefully followed and analyzed. These studies generally do not show especially high plutonium toxicity or plutonium-induced cancer results, such as Albert Stevens who survived into old age after being injected with plutonium.[91] "There were about 25 workers from Los Alamos National Laboratory who inhaled a considerable amount of plutonium dust during 1940s; according to the hot-particle theory, each of them has a 99.5% chance of being dead from lung cancer by now, but there has not been a single lung cancer among them."[96][98]

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